Coastal Development Organisation (Somalia) is LNGO that operates in the field of marine, agriculture, environment and development of coastal communities in south central Somalia, CODO was established on 15th October 2001 by a group of Somali professionals. from coastal communities to be coastal community focal point, CODO is legally registered in Somalia which was recognized and intended to focus on Somali small scale fishery industry, in addition to, working throughout south central Somalia to strengthen coastal community capacity at all levels for Peace and Development mechanisms at fishing sector to enable community centred awareness among coastal residents and to achieve sustainable economic growth through Development, Environmental protection, capacity building, poverty reduction, job creation opportunities, Relief and Rehabilitations in livelihood building, to lobby decision makers among coastal community, to improve governance and respect for human rights in the fisheries sector and to reduce gender inequality,
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Fishery Info & Contact
Phone Number: 254721459367
Mobile Number: 254721459367
Main Type: Saltwater Shore
Sub Type: Saltwater Boat
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CODO FISHERMEN CAPACITY BUILDING WORKSHOP REPORT 2002
TOT WORKSHOP IN MUDUG AND MIDDLE SHABELLE REGIONS
TOT PROJECT IN COASTAL REGIONS
The Coastal Development Organization (CODO) implemented successfully a fishermen Training of Trainers (TOT) Project in at Wah-weyn village of Mudug region and Adalle district of Middle Shabelle region in July 2002, to build the capacity of Somalia fishermen and the fishing industry at large.
Project Main Objective
Somali fishermen become informed of the importance of fishing and fishing industry issues – including winds and foreign vessels fishing in the field response, deforestation and unsustainable resource exploitation, fishing skills and learn skills to deal with on such issues with impact, in order to raise awareness among Somali fishing industry societies and improve their capacity to withstand climate shocks. They also learn other essential skills for operating as a fisherperson in Somali waters, including personal security and safety skills.
Main Activities • Fishing methods • Robe making/ mending. • Types of fish • Swimming • Rowing • Inshore and off-shore fishing • Fish handling at sea • Fish processing (drying and salting) • Personal security • Environmental awareness
Beneficiary Groups Direct or Indirect
•Up to 60 fishermen based at Wah-weyn village of Mudug and Addalle district of Middle Shabelle regions in Somalia, who have received training for TOT (Training of Trainers). • Somali fishing industry in above mentioned society got greater understanding of professional fishing system and technical development issues for fishing industry through improved fishing knowledge.
Fishery communities’ structure
The main fishery areas are several main zones, based on major cities, towns and villages, such as Kismayo, Barawe, Marka, Mogadishu, Warshek, Adale, Mareg, Wahwayn, Elhur, Hobio, Eil, Bargal, Las Korey and Berbera etc. Fishermen communities are largely made up of traditional fishermen, living in over 100 fishing villages and towns all along the coast from the Kenyan territorial water to Djibouti,
Due to the civil war, there have been internal displacements, which have affected some parts of the coastal fishery communities, especially along the Benadir, Middle shabele, Lower Shabelle, Galgadud, Mudug and Lower Juba regions, and most of the fishing communities have either fled across the Kenyan border, Yemen or resettled in other regions of the country where they felt safe.
Fishery Sector Status Trends
During the last twelve years, (1990-2002) both artisanal and industrial fishery sectors have progressed to a point of almost total development, assisted by several bilateral and multilateral investments, covering the entire coastline, Pre-war, major shore-based installations servicing fishery communities were extensive. Following the civil war of 1991, which left the entire fishing infrastructure in ruins, most of the fishery cooperatives are again operational all along the coastline, but while retaining their fishing skills, most of them have lost their fishing equipment and are in a poor state, and require skills, training and new fishing gears.
The state of the fishery resources, on which both the artisanal and the industrial sectors depend on are small Somali cooperatives who can’t handle all fishing activities required, however, it is thought that the inshore marine resources, which are mainly exploited by the artisanal sectors, are lightly exploited. In contrast, fishery resources exploited by both the artisanal and the industrial sectors have declined in the past few years, while the industrial sector’s marine fishery resources have also shown heavy decline, indicating that these resources might have been overexploited.
Brief story of Somalia Fishing Industry Marine fisheries
The marine fishery sector comprises two distinct separate parts: the artisanal sector, which operates in inshore areas, and accounts for most of the landings (60%), and the industrial sector, which accounts for about 40% of total fishery production.
Statistics on the annual landings from the artisanal fishing fleet are incomplete, and only rough estimates are available. With the introduction of 500 mechanized boats in the early 1970s, the annual catch increased from about 5 000 t to a peak of 8 000 t in 1975. However, due to the lack of maintenance and spare parts for the new boats that had been distributed to the fishermen, about two-thirds were out of operation after only two years, and, as a direct consequence, by the late 1970s annual fish production was back to 5 000 t.
However, annual artisanal fishery production between 1980 and 1985 varied from a minimum of 4 000 t in 1980 to a maximum of 7 724 t reported in 1984. At the same time, it is difficult to estimate to what extent the civil war affected annual artisanal fishery production. However, total catches and landings were estimated at about 14 850 t. The major part of the catch is marine finfish (14 000 t), with some 250 t of freshwater fishes, 350 t of tropical spiny lobsters and 250 t of cephalopods. Landing sites are situated in the north, northeast and south of the country, and the three areas contributed 38%, 37% and 25% of total artisanal fishery production in 1980. The artisanal fishing fleet is composed of 5 m houris, which are simply canoes, usually operated with two paddles, but sometimes with a 5 hp outboard engine; 6.4 m glass reinforced plastic (GRP) boats fitted with 10–15 hp inboard engines or 10–15 hp outboards; and 8.5 m GRP boats fitted with 20–30 hp inboard engines. The last-named are the most popular, and much used by the artisanal fishery sector as they are very strong, long-lasting and very effective, although the most expensive. They are all locally made by several privately owned boatyards in the country. The artisanal fishing fleet is estimated at about 650 motorized GRP boats of 6.4 m and 8.5 m, about 380 traditional sail boats, and about 2 /800 houris (canoes). Unfortunately, most of the motorized boats (about 60%) are out of order due to lack of spare or replacement parts and other equipment.
The fishing gear employed by the artisanal fishery is simple and effective, consisting of hand lines, gill nets and long lines. The canoe-based fishermen, since their boats are too small for other types of fishing gear, use hand lining. However, mechanized boats also carry handlines to be used during idle periods, especially after setting gill nets or drift nets. Longlines are also used for shark, tuna and other big fish species like king mackerel, which are the most popular and most favoured species in the country. Gill nets are used as drifts or bottom-set nets, with mesh sizes in the 150–200 mm range and mainly used for shark species. In general, the pelagic fish stocks in the Somali EEZ are estimated to be capable of providing sustainable annual catches of the order of 200 000 t, based on several fish surveys conducted in the 1970s and 1980s. Because of the known pelagic fish resources, which are large, and tuna and mackerel species, which have high unit values, the long-term development of these resources could be of vast importance to the economy. These main groups are considered below.
Large pelagic stocks
The large pelagic species are tuna and big mackerels, mainly yellowfin tuna, longtail tuna, bonito, skipjack tuna, and Spanish mackerel, They are usually caught in inshore waters; their seasonal variations in abundance are considerable, confirming the oceanic migratory pattern of these species. There are two peaks in the landings: in November and in March. However, during the southwest monsoon, their abundance is assumed to be low. They also make important contributions to artisanal fishery production. The primary season for Spanish mackerel is March–June, and for tunas it is October–November. These stocks are lightly exploited by the artisanal fishery sector, but are heavily exploited by the industrial fishery sector, mainly by foreign-flag distant-water fishing fleets, and it is possible that they are overexploited. The foreign vessels compete with the artisanal fishermen, by coming close inshore and inflicting losses, including physical confrontation between the two sides which has led to gear losses and at times to loss of life.
Small pelagic stocks
The small pelagic fish species of interest are Indian oil sardinella, rainbow sardine, scads, and, to a less extent, anchovies, Their main distribution areas are off the northeast coast, and part of these stocks make seasonal migrations into the regions between Ras Mabber and Ras Asseir. Outside these two regions they are scattered and do not form a basis for any fishery. They are also exploited by a great number of foreign-flag vessels from distant-water fishing fleets, as well as by national deep-water vessels. The states of the stocks are unknown, and catch reports are unreliable. Their seasonal abundance is estimated at between 120 000 and 200 000 t.
There are several hundred demersal fish species taken by the artisanal fisheries. Diversity is highest in the coral reef region from Adale to the Kenyan border. The main commercial species groups are scavengers, groupers, snappers, grunts, and seabreams, of less importance are threadfin breams, lizard fish, and goatfish, These commercial demersal species make important contributions to the artisanal fishing sector all along the coast. Accessible stocks are estimated at about 40 000 t of large demersal species, and 30 000 t of sharks and rays. Except for sharks, demersal stocks have been lightly exploited by the artisanal fishery sector. Owing to their very limited migration, these species can support a year-round fishery. Also, sharks and rays play an important role in Somali traditional fishery. They often represent 40% of total artisanal fishery production (especially in the southern and central areas).
Development While major capital investments are required to re-develop the entire fishery industry, including processing and marketing aspects, there is a primary need for assisting the fishery communities to regain their means of livelihood, and strengthen their capacity to earn income and to generate employment.
Contact address. Coastal Development Organization (CODO), Tell: +252615584557 or +254721459367 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
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We are not all pirates, desperate call for help
Piracy off the coast of Somalia has been a threat to International shipping since 2005. Piracy has impeded the delivery of shipments and increased shipping expenses, costing an estimated $6.6 to $6.9 billion a year in global trade per Oceans Beyond Piracy (OBP). Pirates have been attacking vessels passing the Horn of Africa since 2005, when they received a $315,000 ransom for Feisty Gas, a ship owned by a company in Hong Kong. Since then, the payments have risen continuously and reaching a high amount of money. You can be in suspicious and stressed person if you try to define the root cause of Somalia Piracy without touchable investigation with fairness approach but globally a United Nations report and several news sources have suggested that piracy off the coast of Somalia is caused in part by illegal fishing. According to the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW) and the U.S.House Armed Services Committee, there is also information indicating that the dumping of toxic waste in Somali waters by foreign vessels has also severely constrained the ability of local fishermen to earn a living and forced many to turn to piracy instead. Globally is believed that, the local coastal communities "strongly support the piracy as a form of national defense of the country's territorial waters", and the pirates believe they are protecting their fishing grounds and exacting justice and compensation for the marine resources stolen. Obviously, the radical groups’ involvement caused the coastal community support by feeling fear of possible reprisals if they refuse piracy actions going on their livelihoods and they don’t have any participation rights to comment or public meeting about the Piracy of Somalia. The Coastal Development Organization (CODO) is pleased to release today the current status report on Somali fishermen who are tremendously under thematic attacks, stigma and discrimination by foreign vessels fishing illegally in Somali waters as well as the International Community who are fighting to defeat piracy acts in Somali coastal zones. Piracy negative impact on the political, social, economic and humanitarian situation of affected states has seen Somali fishing industry and allocates to speak out and promised to work very closely for those dealing with anti-piracy actions. Many coastal dwellers that had turned to piracy since the onset of the civil war almost 20 years ago In 1994, and they are still worked as an artisanal lobster diver in Eyl – "one of the best" the lobster population off the coast of Eyl has been devastated by foreign fishing fleets, Using steel-pronged drag fishing nets, these foreign trawlers did not bother with nimble explorations of the reefs: they uprooted them, netting the future livelihood of the nearby coastal people along with the day's catch. Today, the foreign fishing fleets had become more challenging prey, entering into protection contracts with local warlords or policy makers without legal permission from government that made armed guards and anti-aircraft guns regular fixtures on the decks of their ships. So, like all successful hunters. Local fishermen adapted to their changing environment, and began going after commercial shipping vessels. Somali fishermen need help to solve the problems from the coastal zones professionally, physically, economically and security, so as to insure Somali coastal community rights, Somali fishermen believe that they are not only being robbed of their fish. They said they are ramming our boats and taking our nets -- including the catch." Somali officials announced plans to regulate fishing in the country’s troubled waters; illegal trawlers continue to operate while local fishermen suffer attacks and depleted catches. The fishermen are not only losing a way of life but also their lives, according to Somali fishermen. "We are not only being denied our fish but also our lives are in danger," said Mohamed Abdirahman, a member of Bosasso fishing cooperative, in the self-declared autonomous region of Puntland, northeastern Somalia, and so on other coastal zones, "Early this year we lost five members after their boat was run over by a big ship and I can tell you it was no accident," said Abdirahman. “We know that the costs imposed by Somali piracy on the global economy are so high and that international mobilization to eradicate piracy is ongoing effort. However, these efforts cannot be sustained without stable of Somalia.”Parallel to that, the Government has launched a huge campaign to eradicate the piracy through mediation and dialogue with the community leaders and the local stakeholders. The fruits of this campaign have led to the voluntary denunciation of so many young Somalis to these illegal activities. The Government is planning to present to the international community, a plan for reengaging the young former pirates by establishing a vocational training centers and reeducating to abide by the national and international laws”. The president added The Coastal Development Organization (CODO) is calling the International Community to respect the voice from the local Somali fishermen and allocate their participation rights endue course in order to shift piracy ending in Somali maritime. Contact address. Coastal Development Organization (CODO), Tell: +254721459367 or +25215852535, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com,
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Illegal fishing by foreign trawlers looms across Somalia
Coastal Dvelopment Organisation (CODO) representing the impoverished neglected and ignored this Somali coastal community, observed the serious problems between the coastal community and illegal fishing trawlers, using drag nets, traps, and trawl nets to fish for the abundant array of seafood found in Somali waters like tuna, sardines and mackerel. Somalia has experienced dramatic environmental shifts following decades of insecurity and chaos in the country. The country’s 3,333-km coastline virtually unprotected, industrial fishing vessels from Europe and Asia have entered the area in large numbers and are plundering Somalia’s rich maritime resources.
Dynamite fishing is under way and it’s a very serious problem in Somalia. The residents in Harar-dhere say the corrals that used to slacken the force of the sea waves have been destroyed by dynamite fishing. Other areas like Gaan in Mudug region and others near the crosslink of the Indian Ocean and red sea are also infamous for the crime. According to some residents, the crime is committed openly with the knowledge of law enforcers but it seems no authority is willing to take stern measures to end the crime.
The fishermen community told the Coastal Development Organization (CODO) that destroying the corrals also leads to destruction of sea-grass. “Corrals are homes of fish and other marine creatures. Sea-grass is their food and when these two are destroyed, the fish have no-where to live and nothing to eat. They shift to other areas far away from here where it is safe for them,” explains Ali Hirsi who was one of the fishermen spoke to CODO and the Somali media for Environment, Science, Health and Agriculture (SOMESHA).
Global Witness, a London-based group that investigates natural resource exploitation, agrees that vessels from countries such as France, Spain, Indonesia and South Korea gobbled up hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of fish from Somali waters without licenses.
On the other hand, A Bossaso court convicted 78 Iranians who were caught in April illegally fishing in Puntland state waters. According to Judge Ahmed the fines have to be paid within 45 days or the fishermen will serve jail time. The owners of the fishing boats will also have to pay within 45 days or their boats will be impounded to the Puntland government. Twelve Somalis who were on board the illegal fishing vessels serving as security guards were also charged fines.
The Puntland Maritime Police Force (PMPF) apprehended the 5 illegal boats in late April after Somali fishermen reported an influx of illegal fishing boats from Yemen and Iran. The 5 Iranian boats were captured off the coast of Qow located 20 KMs from Bossaso.
PMPF Admiral Abdirizak Diriye Farah who spoke to media after arresting the Iranian fishermen stated that the maritime forces would continue operations against illegal trawlers and fishing boats that have "overwhelmed" Puntland and Somali waters. Somali fishermen along the coast of Puntland have reported numerous illegal fishing cases to authorities. However Puntland authorities have told GO, coastal forces such as the PMPF are in the initial stages and don't have the capacity to protect the massive coastline. Fishermen have been complaining about illegal trawlers and boats from all over the world, who feel as if they can illegally fish without any repercussions, this is what started piracy. If the international community wants to put an end to piracy they have to put an end to illegal fishing," said Ahmed Mohamed a fishermen for 15 years who has worked all over the coast of Somalia.
Continuing, Ahmed said that measures needed to be taken against the illegal fishing trawlers in Somali waters. "The international naval ships are on the search for pirates, they are not mandated to search for illegal fishing; are they not pirates? You can't expect to put an end to a problem without preventing the cause of the problem," said Ahmed. Local fishermen from Mudhug region have expressed their anger towards oppression from foreign ships at the region's coastline. When huge foreign trawlers suddenly began appearing, the local fishermen who plied their trade with simple nets and small fiberglass boats were wiped out, "They fished everything - sharks, lobsters, eggs, they collided with local community boats. They came with giant nets and swept everything out of the sea. The longest coast in African continent — has been pillaged by foreign vessels. Foreign experts say, in the absence of country's serviceable coastguard, Somali waters have become the site of an international "free for all," with fishing fleets from around the world illegally plundering Somali stocks and freezing out the country's own rudimentarily-equipped fishermen. According to them, an estimated $400 million worth of seafood is stolen from the country's coastline each year. In the face of this, impoverished Somalis living by the sea have been forced over the years to defend their own fishing expeditions out of ports such as Eyl, Kismayo and Harardhere — all now considered to be pirate dens. Somali fishermen, whose industry was always small-scale, lacked the advanced boats and technologies of their interloping competitors, and also complained of being shot at by foreign fishermen with water cannons and firearms. This illegal fishing, foreign ships have also long been accused by local fishermen of dumping toxic and nuclear waste off Somalia's shores. Taking advantage of a lack of a central government in Somalia, the foreign ships use prohibited fishing methods like drifts, dynamiting, breaking coral reefs and destroying the coral habitats where lobsters and other coral fish live, As a result, even tiny female lobsters carrying eggs are killed indiscriminately during their reproductive cycle, something which was illegal before the civil war began in 1991. During the day, Local community says, the ships disappear sometimes, but come close to the shore at night and apply their “destructive” fishing techniques, which reduce the local population’s harvest and damage nets and traps set by local fishermen, in the mornings, lots of dead fish are seen floating near the shores, and ships also have little regard for lows governing Somalia’s two fishing seasons, Traditionally in Somalia, serious fishing especially involving nets only takes place between September and April. in the hot season, between May and August, and Somali coastal community lost their income and they say that they will even lost their future unless action is taken against the foreign ships. Stateting that they were not capable of stopping the trawlers from illegally fishing, adding that the trawlers have come even closer to the coast when realizing that authorities were helpless. Illegal fishing vessels use drag nets, traps, and trawl nets to fish for the abundant array of seafood found in Somali waters like tuna, sardines and mackerel with special emphasis on lucrative catches like lobster and sharks. The illegal trawlers than throw any unwanted catches which by that time are dead or dying back into the ocean a termed called 'by-catch', which has a serious affect on marine habitats. The trawlers and their trawl nets often destroy marine habitats because lucrative catches like lobster are found near the ocean floor. One of the coastal communities who contacted a Somali media outlet in Mogadishu said that foreign vessels congested the whole coastline and conducted illegal fishing at the regions coastline. He added that the foreign ships threaten locals and put locals' lives in danger.
Contact address. Coastal Development Organization (CODO), Tell: +254721459367 or +252615852535, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com,
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CODO Assessment Report on Somali Coastal circumstances from 2005 to 2008
The Coastal Development Organization (CODO) Conducted three years Assessment Report in the most coastal livelihoods in South and Central zone, Labels Tsunami and climate change as major deterrent to development.
The effect of the earthquake and Tsunami in southern Asia has reached as far the East African coast. In particular the country of Somalia has been the hardest hit in the region. Somalia is one of the poorest and most underdeveloped countries and the tsunami after math was too much to be handle by the Somali administration. In Somalia, the monstrous waves reached later than it hit the Indian and Sri Lankan coast. Although the strength was relatively low.
The Somali tsunami attack on the 26th December, 2004 had left hundreds homeless, and was the reason behind the outbreak of epidemics. The Indian Ocean tsunami was one of the most hazardous natural calamities of recent times that affected thousands of people not only in Somalia but also in India, Sri Lanka, and a major portion of Southeast Asia and parts of Africa.
The worst tsunami hit areas of Somalia include the Punt land, Hafun, Garacad region. Garacad is home of the large number of Somalian people who make their living by fishing. Most of the families have been rendered penniless.
Many Somalis were flee their homes located near coastal areas and some displaced persons in Somali camps are victims of the December 2004 tsunami who lost their fishing boats and came to towns inland hoping for help. Their villages and communities were almost 5,000 kilometers from the epicenter of the earthquake that caused the tsunami, and yet they were not spared.
The Estimation of the Affected Population and Lost Materials
Thousands were killed and thousands were left homeless due to the tsunami attack in Somalia and poor humanitarian access exists in the field. It claimed more than 1000 lives, many went missing and around 50,000 were displaced.
This would include those populations who depend on fresh water sources along the coast and there are indications that this population could extend inland up to 50 kms. The destruction of a number of fishing boats and equipment and the subsequent loss of livelihoods is expected to add to the number of vulnerable people.
Apart from the immediate effect, much of these affected areas were affected by Cholera and malaria. Lack of food, unhygienic sanitation and dearth of drinking water were some of the prominent aftermath. It is a known fact that many of the worlds developed countries utilized the coastline of under developed countries to dispose of industrial wastes which are toxic.
It is also believed, that toxic wastes are being dumped into the unprotected Somali territorial waters. Dead fish and closed barrels with chemical contents have been seen floating over the Somali territorial waters.
Challenges and Opportunities
The CODO assessment over the impact of the tsunami in Somalia on the affected population is not clear yet, despite many logistical difficulties due to the difficult terrain with non-existent roads, size of the affected areas and communication constraints.
Deforestation, Climate Change Dilemma Looms across Somalia
The relentless drought across East Africa is deepening because of global climate change as well as the continuing destruction of forests, grasslands and wetlands.
The impacts of the climate change are already causing coastal erosion and possibly a rise in the level of Somali seas. The lives and livelihoods of Somali fishermen along Somalia 3333-km coast are being seriously jeopardized.
Somalia, coastal infrastructures are being affected. The displacement of people and the proliferation of piracy constitute a very serious dilemma for a country that is trying hard to bail itself out of the predicament that has lasted for a long time.
Somalia continues to witness extreme weather events, changes in weather patterns, floods and droughts, and the vanishing of its biodiversity. Agricultural production, food security and access to water resources are being severely compromised by climate change. Human health is also impacted by the climate change.
Malaria and other vector-borne diseases are now prevalent in areas that were not previously endemic. This is indicative of the fact that the impacts of climate change have altered the ecology of the vectors that transmit certain virulent pathogens that cause some of the most debilitating diseases in the country.
Apart from that, Somalis are also suffering. From late 2008 up to the present time foreign helicopters patrolling warships in Somali waters have been poaching and stealing wildlife from the coastal villages in North Eastern Somalia that some Elders and nomadic families of the coastal villages in Puntland, a self-declared state in northeastern Somalia, are suffering from foreign helicopters that are hunting and stealing wildlife on the outskirts of the villages in coastal areas. The most targeted areas by the flying poachers are Nugal, Karkar and Mudug regions.
Contact address. Coastal Development Organization (CODO), Tell: +254721459367 or +252615852535, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com,
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